A brain-computer interface is a direct communication pathway between a human or animal brain (or brain cell culture) and an external device.
Before discussing it I will like to mention that it has brilliant scope in the medical for helping paralyzed patients, patients with physical disabilities and the situational disabilities ( e.g. for astronaut in the space).
Principal: It is based on the principal that our brain issue signal through nerves to all body parts to work which are electrical in nature.
Types: 1) Invasive: in this type of BCI the neurosurgery of the patient is done and Nano robots are installed inn his brain. 2) Non Invasive: In this technique a interface is mad between there device and brain rather that direct neural contact i.e. caps having electrodes
Now BCI has four basic elements of the working that is 1)signal acquisition: The process of obtaining signal from the brain and digitizing that for further processing 2)signal processing : In this signal s raw information is converted in to the useful information and then translation of the signal to device command is done.3) Device Output: In this working element the signal is applied to device for required output.4)Operating Protocol: This provides an interface between device and outside world.it also includes how system can be on off, Speed of the system and feedback factor.
In the next post I will try to interface the brain computer interface with artificial intelligence and what wonders these two can do to the current human scenario . You can ask any type of Query in the comments or can mail me I will try my best to resolve that.